By Wayles Browne, Theresa Alt
Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are 3 standardized varieties in keeping with very comparable linguistic fabric. for plenty of humans the time period "language" capability standardized type of a language, and during this that means we will converse of a Bosnian language, a Croatian language, and a Serbian language. "Language" is also a process that enables verbal exchange, and during this which means we will be able to think about all 3 to make up one language. Serbo-Croatian was once the normal time period. The non-native learner will frequently are looking to decide to pay attention to Bosnian or Croatian or Serbian, yet studying any of those actively plus a few wisdom of the diversities will allow the learner to participate within the communique procedure in the course of the entire zone. This description will use the time period BCS to indicate what the 3 criteria have in universal. the variations in grammar usually are not very a variety of and may be mentioned as we move alongside. the variations in vocabulary are extra quite a few; a few should be mentioned within the vocabulary part.
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Additional resources for A Handbook of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian
Njȇ, je versus acc. njȗ, je / ju and the lack of a genitive reflexive enclitic). There is much additional variation. Instrumental singulars used without preposition are frequently mnome, njime, njome. Si is absent in central Štokavski dialects, but found in some Croatian standard codifications. Archaic and literary usage may have accusatives me, te, nj, se with prepositions, as za nj 'for him' = za njega, preda se 'in front of oneself' = pred sebe. 2 Demonstrative, possessive and other pronouns have a characteristic set of endings, again with many alternative forms (Table 9).
Važno je biti vr(ij)edan. ' L(ij)epo je.
This, like many consonantnu- verbs, has alternative forms lacking -nu-: dići (infinitive like stems in k, g), digoh diže, digao digla, digavši. No alternatives exist for -nu- preceded by vowel: minem PF 'pass', minuti, minuh minu, minuo minula, minuvši. The few imperfective verbs can make an imperfect: ton-em 'sink', tonuti, tonjah. 1 If the infinitive has rising accent (⁄ or \) on the syllable before -uti, the present gets \ on the preceding syllable: pokrénuti PF, present pòkrēnēm 'set something in motion'; potònuti PF, present pòtonēm 'sink' .