By Peter Freyd

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It makes the graph easier to see, and makes it easier to more carefully examine the fluctuations of the individual time series in different periods. 0%. 69. 35. 0%, the highest rate among the asset classes studied here. 0%. This higher return reflected the risk premium that investors require for investing in corporate bonds, which are subject to the risk of default. 82 by the end of 2015. 00). 4% capital gain over the 90-year period. This indicates that the majority of the positive historical returns on long-term government bonds was due to income returns.

3, the arithmetic mean returns are higher than the geometric mean returns. The difference between these two means is related to the standard deviation, or variability, of the series (see Chapter 6). 3 show the frequency distribution of returns for each asset class. The height of the skylines shows the number of years in the 1926–2015 period that had a return in that range. The histograms are shown in 5% increments (from -90% to 90%) to fully display the spectrum of returns as seen over the last 90 years, especially in stocks.

0%. 69. 35. 0%, the highest rate among the asset classes studied here. 0%. This higher return reflected the risk premium that investors require for investing in corporate bonds, which are subject to the risk of default. 82 by the end of 2015. 00). 4% capital gain over the 90-year period. This indicates that the majority of the positive historical returns on long-term government bonds was due to income returns. 6%. 32 at year-end 2014. 2%. 6%. 4%. Treasury bill returns followed distinct patterns, described in the next subsection.

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