By Jean Audouze, Sylvie Vauclair (auth.)

TO NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS The Formation and the Evolution of subject within the Universe JEAN AUDOUZE lnstitut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France and SYLVIE VA UCLAI R DAPHE, Ohservatoire de Meudon, France and lnstitut d'Astrophysique, Paris D, REIDEL PUBLISHING corporation DORDRECHT: HOLLAND/BOSTON: U. S. A. LONDON: ENGLAND Library of Congre~ Cataloging in book facts Audouzc. Jean An advent to nuclear astrophysics. (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs; v. 18) En!. and up-to-date translation of L'Astrophysique nuclt\aire. comprises bibliographies and index. \. Nuclear astrophysics. I. Vauclair, Sylvie, joint writer. II. name. III. sequence. QB464. A9313 1979 523. 01'9'7 79-20752 ISBN-13: 978-90-277-1053-6 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-9477-5 DO I: 10. 1007/978-94-009-9477-5 released via D. Reidel Publishing corporation, P. O. field 17. Dordrecht, Holland offered and allotted within the U. S. A. , Canada, and Mexico by way of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Inc. Lincoln construction. one hundred sixty previous Derby highway, Hingham, Mass. 02043, U. S. A. All Rights Reserved Copyright © 1980 through D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Dordrecht, Holland Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st variation 1980 No a part of the fabric secure through this copyright detect could be reproduced or used in any shape or in any respect, digital or mechanical, together with photocopying, recording or by way of any informational garage and retrieval method, with no written permission from the copyright proprietor desk OF CONTENTS IX FOREWORD creation xi XXI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS bankruptcy I / THE OBSERVATIONAL foundation OF NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS 1. 1. the significance of the 4 primary Interactions 1 1. 2.

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And Wilson, R. : 1965. Astrophys. J. 142,419; 72, 315. Russell, H. : 1913, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. : 1976, Nature 261, 479. Further readings: Clayton, D. , New York. Cox, 1. P. and Giuli, R. , New York. : 1974, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 12, 215. : 1970, Introduction Ii l'etude des Particules Elemenlaires, Ediscience, Paris (in French). , New York. , New York. Sciama, D. : 1975, Mudern Cosmology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Shklovskii, I. S. : 1966, Intelligent Life in the Universe, Dell Pub!.

1978, University Astronomy. W. B. • Philadelphia. Sciama. D. : 1975, Modern Cosmology, The Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ~ in Astronomy. New Frontiers in Astron· omy and The Solar System, W. H. , San Francisco. • If an object which radiates with a wavelength A moves with respect to the observer with a velocity v, the wavelength of the radiation is shifted by ai. _(c+V)112 T - c- v where c is the light velocity. i. ~ if v«c. 1. The Origin of the Universe It is now generally believed that our Universe originated some 1010 yr ago in a singular event which is referred to as the 'Big Bang'.

The radius of the curvature of the Universe is plotted vs time. For an open universe the radius increases indefinitely. For a closed universe the radius increases until it reaches a maximum R", at time t", and then decreases towards zero at 21m. It can then increase again if the Universe is pUlsating. From the evidence now availabre, it seems that we live in an open universe. Chapter VII that the presence of D in the observable interstellar medium in abundances as large as D/H ~ 10- 5 allows one to conclude that the observable Universe is open (if one believes as in current nucleosynthetic theories that D was produced as 3He during the Big Bang).

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