By Harm J. Habing, Hans Olofsson

This publication bargains with stars in the course of a brief episode earlier than they suffer a ma­ jor, and deadly, transition. quickly the megastar will cease freeing nudear strength, it is going to develop into a planetary nebula for abrief yet poetic second, after which it is going to develop into a white dwarf and slowly fade out of sight. ahead of this dramatic swap starts off the superstar has reached the top luminosity and the biggest diameter in its lifestyles, and whereas it's a famous person detectable in galaxies past the neighborhood staff, its constitution includes already the inconspicuous white dwarf it's going to turn into. it truly is referred to as an "asymptotic tremendous department famous person" or "AGB star". over the past 30 peculiar years AGB stars became a subject matter in their personal even supposing person contributors of this dass had already been studied for cen­ turies with no figuring out what they have been. within the early evolution, so referred to as "E-AGB"-phase, the celebs are a piece bluer than, yet in a different way similar to, what are actually known as purple colossal department stars (RGB stars). it's only within the sec­ ond 1/2 their in any case short life that AGB stars fluctuate essentially from RGB stars.

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Extra resources for Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

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In particular, we show the shellluminosities and the position in mass of the convective regions. Following Iben [78) we identify four phases of a thermal pulse cycle in the description of the third dredge-up: (a) The "off" phase is the time when the He-burning shell is essentially dormant, producing much less energy than the H-burning shell. 11 and it takes up most of the thermal pulse cycle. (b) The "on" phase begins when the He shell starts to burn very strongly, producing luminosities up to ~ 108 L0 , depending on the core mass and whether limiting flash amplitude has been reached.

When superwind mass loss near the tip of the AGB reduees the hydrogenrieh envelope to small values « 10- 3 Md, the star is no longer able to maintain its large size, and it begins to shrink. At this stage, with a small envelope mass, there is always a radiative layer between the H-burning shell and the base of the eonveetive envelope. 1, this means that the eore luminosity is unaffected by the reduction in envelope mass. Henee, the star evolves at essentially eonstant luminosity to hotter temperatures in the HR-diagram, passing through the domain of the post-AGB stars or preplanetary nebulae (pre-PNe) and passing on to the domain of the planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) where Teff ;G 30,000 K.

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