By D. L. Kaplan (auth.), Dr. David L. Kaplan (eds.)

The necessary facets of using polymers from renewable assets, whilst contemplating synthesis, processing, disposal, and total fabric lifecycle matters, means that this may stay a huge and becoming niche. the point of interest on greener chemistries in will be partially chuffed by means of exploring the diversity of polymers to be had from Nature. the data for every kind of polymer comprises points of synthesis, processing and homes. the wide variety of polymers and their houses, together with polyamides, polysaccharides, polyesters and polyphenols, between others, illustrates this range of fabrics. The reader could have a unmarried quantity which supplies a source from which to achieve preliminary insights into this diversified box and from which key references and contacts will be drawn.

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Mathur NK, Narang CK (1990) J Chern Education 67: 938 70. Mayer JM, Kaplan DL (1991) US Patent 5,015,293 71. Mayer JM, Greenberger M, Ball DH, Kaplan D (1990) Preprints Proceed American Chern Sec Div Polymeric Materials Sci Eng 63 : 732 72. McGrath KP, Tirrell DA, Kawai M, Mason TL, Fournier MJ (1990) Biotechnol Frog 6: 188 73. McGrath KP, Fournier MJ, Mason TL, Tirrell DA (1992) J Am Chern Sec 114: 727 74. McGrath K, Kaplan DL (1998) Protein based baterials. Birkhauser 75. McPherson DT, Morrow C, Minehan DS, Wu J, Hunter E, Urry DW (1992) Biotechnol Prog 8:347 76.

Shellac. Shellac is a resin produced by parasitic insects (Kerria lacca) as a protective secretion for the larval stage while growing on certain trees in the Far East [68] . The resin is produced during growth on the trees after harvesting, and processing. Shellac is the only commercial resin of animal origin. It has good water resistance, is approved for human consumption, and is often used in coatings on foods such as candies and fruit. Shellac contains aliphatic polyhydroxy acids as lactones, lactides, and other esters.

Dextrans are high molecular weight, polydisperse, and uncharged. Dextrans are derived from the enzymatic fermentation of sucrose by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other microorganisms and are produced as extracellular polysaccharides. They are also formed by enzymatic methods with dextran sucrase. The dextran from L. mesenteriodes contains 95% 1,6 linkages and 5% randomly distributed 1,3linkages, and the majority of side chains or branches contain one or two glucose units. Dextran was the first extracellular microbial polymer used industrially, primarily as a blood plasma extender and in separations technology.

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