By Elisa Martí-López

Borrowed Words addresses the obvious paradox that underpins the methods of cultural creation and intake in mid-nineteenth-century Europe: the truth that countries at diverse narrative phases turn into contiguous literary markets. It specializes in translations and imitations of overseas literary types and on their position in developing the bases of the bourgeois Spanish novel. whereas critics have considered translations and imitations as alien to Spanish approaches of cultural formation, the publication argues that those writing practices represent either a discourse on nationwide identification and an autochthonous writing. The publication contends that the attractiveness of translation and imitation within the literary lifetime of a rustic doesn't suggest denying the categorical stipulations created by way of political borders within the structure of a countrywide literature, that's, the lifestyles of nationwide borders framing literary dwell. What it does is realize new and assorted frontiers that destabilize the nationwide confines (as good because the nationalistic values) of literary heritage. In translation and imitation, borders are skilled no longer because the demarcation of otherness, yet fairly as crossroads within the quest of id. Martí-López explores those matters utilizing a gaggle of books whose life is in detail associated with the large exportation of French cultural paradigms (in specific, types of novel writing) to Spain: the Spanish translations and imitations of Eugène Sue's Les Mystères de Paris (1842-1843). The research of those works demonstrate the increase of the unconventional in mid-nineteenth-century Spain because the results of either a poetics of aesthetic displacement and advertising practices - booklet construction and the reception of overseas models.

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25 Fernández de los Ríos thought that the financial difficulties faced by the Spanish novelists helped explain the diversion of literary energies away from the novel: The odd shortage of novels in Spain, despite the fact that Spanish history, traditions, and customs lend themselves exceedingly well to the genre, can in our view be clearly explained. While the novel is the area of literature that requires the greatest amount of work, it is not the most glorious for the writer, who can gain appreciation and admiration at a lower cost by dedicating himself to works of more importance and transcendence.

Young girls with a dagger in the garter, . . colorful thieves, . . ” 18 For his part, Ramón de Mesonero Romanos openly criticized the imposition on Spain of the civilization versus barbarism paradigm characteristic of the European discourse on the colonies—a paradigm that Spaniards had actively contributed to. Resisting the characterization of Spain as the “other” of civilized Europe, he humorously points out the absurdity of the attitude of the French traveler who visited Spain as if s/he were an explorer discovering an unknown and faraway territory: French writers know that “their purpose in life is to cross the Pyrenees .

11 Thus, the Spanish publisher became, in fact, a promoter of the French novel. All the Spanish publishing activity that preceded the actual printing of a novel took place in Paris; all the productive energy that resulted in the release of a novel was diverted to France. Accordingly, and from this standpoint, we can say that the mid-nineteenthcentury Spanish novel was written in France, or, in other words, that the French novel became Spanish through progenitorship: Printing the translation of a French novel in Spain almost as soon as in France, publishing it simultaneously, was not very honorable for Spanish literature.

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